Unix File Types

In Unix systems, there are 6 file types. Below I will give a very short description of each.

How to find out the type of file in Unix

The first and most obvious way to confirm the type of a particular file is to use the long-format output of ls command, invoked by the -l option:

$ ls -l * 
 -rw-r--r-- 1 greys greys       1024 Mar 29 06:31 text

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How To: Use apt-get behind proxy

If you run your Ubuntu system behind a firewall and have to use proxy server for http and ftp access, then your apt-get on a newly installed Ubuntu system will probably not work.

To make it use proxy, simply set the http_proxy environment variable. Once you get it working (try something like apt-get update), you'll probably want to add it to your .bashrc file.

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URL file-access is disabled in the server configuration

I've recently upgraded Apache and PHP on my VPS, and one of the unpleasant surprises was that some scripts which tried including pages from remote sites (I know, not the most secure approach, but there were reasons for that) got broken.

allow_url_fopen

Traditionally, all the websites Google finds suggest that you double-check that your php.ini config has the allow_url_fopen enabled:

allow_url_fopen = On

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